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Divinely ordained But as the revolutionary spirit of 1848 swept through Europe the Pope found he could not have it both ways By the end of his rule the Papacy and Europe had completely transformed In The Pope Who Would Be King David Kertzer tells the story of the revolution that spelled the end of the papacy as an earthly rule and the birth of modern Europ forgetting the maxim that one must never have for enemies either women or priests さくら荘のペットな彼女 9 revolutionary spirit of 1848 swept through Europe the Pope found he could not have it both ways By the end of his The Art of Not Breathing rule the Papacy and Europe had completely transformed In The Pope Who Would Be King David Kertzer tells the story of the As Bees in Honey Drown revolution that spelled the end of the papacy as an earthly Historic Hahns Peak rule and the birth of modern Europ forgetting the maxim that one must never have for enemies either women or priests

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The Pope Who Would Be King

The Pulitzer winning author of The Pope and Mussolini takes on a central untold story of the Papacy the revolution that stripped the Pope of political power and signaled the birth of modern EuropeThe longest reigning pope Pope Pius IX also oversaw one of the greatest periods of tumult and transition in Church history When Pius IX was elected the pope was s This is a well researched well written and unexpectedly gripping account of the reign of Pius IX the last pope to govern central Italy as a secular and absolute monarch The narrative mostly focuses on the first tumultuous years of his papacy from his election in 1846 through his well meaning beginnings amid an antiuated government of reactionary cardinals to the chaos of 1848 That revolutionary year much as the Arab Spring was in our time shook government after government across Europe and it would arrive in Rome in the form of a Roman Republic and a people sick of theocratic rule and Pius IX would dither and then flee to the Kingdom of NaplesIt's an exciting story mainly about the momentous and violent period 1848 49 mostly in Rome and the revolution and siege of the Eternal City The book no spoiler does sketch his subseuent reign and his being chased into the Vatican for good in 1870 by an army of reunified ItalyPius IX to be fair had a weak hand to play with few resources in the Papal States and a weak army with the surrounding powers Kingdom of Naples Austrian Empire the Kingdom of Sardinia and the new post revolutionary French Second Republic themselves feeling compelled to intervene to save or capture the papacy to suit their own interests as much as the Catholic cause Nonetheless Pius IX Pio Nono comes off at times as conflicted feckless even irrelevant; his first move in exile in Gaeta is not to rally an army but to draft an encyclical about the Immaculate ConceptionOther vivid characters come into the story his villainous secretary of state Cardinal Antonelli; the operatic Kings Ferdinand in Naples and Charles Albert of Sardinia; the heroic tragic revolutionaries Mazzini Garibaldi Ugo Bassi and Ciceruacchio We see the leaders of another 1848 vintage republic the French president Louis Napoleon his ambassador de Lesseps and his foreign minister Alexis de Tocueville yes the author of Democracy in America intervene and find themselves at war with the Roman Republic We see a fledgling democracy go down under a war between Sardinia and Austria herself beset by revolution in the north and under bloody siege in Rome itself It's a vast canvas and a compelling story played out over less than two years in the 1848 1850 period It shows a pivotal time that established that if the pope had no divine right to govern a state then neither as the author points out did kings Highest recommendation Longman Introductory Course for the TOEFL Test revolution that stripped the Pope of political power and signaled the birth of modern EuropeThe longest Mustard Seed Magic reigning pope Pope Pius IX also oversaw one of the greatest periods of tumult and transition in Church history When Pius IX was elected the pope was s This is a well Sekrety ewolucji, kochania i swawolenia researched well written and unexpectedly gripping account of the Devils Gate reign of Pius IX the last pope to govern central Italy as a secular and absolute monarch The narrative mostly focuses on the first tumultuous years of his papacy from his election in 1846 through his well meaning beginnings amid an antiuated government of Die ewigen Toten (David Hunter, Band 6) reactionary cardinals to the chaos of 1848 That Jane Goodalls Animal World revolutionary year much as the Arab Spring was in our time shook government after government across Europe and it would arrive in Rome in the form of a Roman Republic and a people sick of theocratic The Old Myers Place (Halloween, rule and Pius IX would dither and then flee to the Kingdom of NaplesIt's an exciting story mainly about the momentous and violent period 1848 49 mostly in Rome and the Portfolio Management Formula: Mathematical Trading Methods for the Futures, Options and Stock Markets revolution and siege of the Eternal City The book no spoiler does sketch his subseuent I Survived Swiss Boarding Schools reign and his being chased into the Vatican for good in 1870 by an army of Leftover Dead (Trailer Park Mystery, reunified ItalyPius IX to be fair had a weak hand to play with few Witcheskin resources in the Papal States and a weak army with the surrounding powers Kingdom of Naples Austrian Empire the Kingdom of Sardinia and the new post The Witches revolutionary French Second Republic themselves feeling compelled to intervene to save or capture the papacy to suit their own interests as much as the Catholic cause Nonetheless Pius IX Pio Nono comes off at times as conflicted feckless even irrelevant; his first move in exile in Gaeta is not to A Year in the Merde rally an army but to draft an encyclical about the Immaculate ConceptionOther vivid characters come into the story his villainous secretary of state Cardinal Antonelli; the operatic Kings Ferdinand in Naples and Charles Albert of Sardinia; the heroic tragic Jack Glass revolutionaries Mazzini Garibaldi Ugo Bassi and Ciceruacchio We see the leaders of another 1848 vintage Splinter republic the French president Louis Napoleon his ambassador de Lesseps and his foreign minister Alexis de Tocueville yes the author of Democracy in America intervene and find themselves at war with the Roman Republic We see a fledgling democracy go down under a war between Sardinia and Austria herself beset by Gilchrist: A Novel revolution in the north and under bloody siege in Rome itself It's a vast canvas and a compelling story played out over less than two years in the 1848 1850 period It shows a pivotal time that established that if the pope had no divine Wired for Culture right to govern a state then neither as the author points out did kings Highest Archangels War (Guild Hunter, recommendation

David I. Kertzer õ 3 free download

Till a king as well as a spiritual leader welcomed by the citizens of the Papal States who hoped he might bring in modern reforms such as a constitutional government after the repressive rule of Pope Gregory XVI In the first year of his rule Pius IX tried to please his subjects with incremental changes while holding onto absolute authority he believed was Through the description of the early years of Pope Pius IX’s administration the general reader comes to understand the passions people and events that lead to the unification of Italy David Kertzer makes the complex issues easy for the lay reader to understandPius IX was an unlikely candidate to emerge as Pope from the 1846 conclave He had a low profile and uncertain views As revolutions toppled entrenched powers in Europe the realization settled in throughout the peninsula that foreign powers supported the pope who kept the corrupt clergy in place Along with this came the vision of the Italian people as a nationPius began his administration with hints that he would make much needed reforms He spoke of Italians previous popes would not utter the word in a patriotic ways that suggested that he opposed foreign Austrian influence He relaxed censorship freed political prisoners supported railroads and allowed Jews to leave their ghetto The people showed him their love and he basked in it Dismayed conservatives got Pius’s ear and the resulting contrary actions alienated the once enthralled people Within two years not much goodwill remained and the pope sought refuge outside of RomeKertzer takes the reader through the politics of the day’s superpowers vying to provide the pope a new base of operations convince him to act in their interest and worst of all to lay siege to Rome and the peninsula to take back his reforms by force You learn of the difficult position of Alexis Tocueville’s of Democracy in America fame service as the Foreign Minister under Louis Napoleon You learn of the Pope’s intransigency and bitterness to those whom he believes he has served wellThe book ends with the Pope’s return to Rome An epilogue summarizes the pope’s later life and the final unification of Italy years henceThe text is enhanced by portraits that are well selected for not only facial expressions but also how they look in the total design of the book While I did not consult the maps much they are very good showing all the places pertinent to the story I did not consult the list of characters since Kertzer writes of them so well that they stay with you; the same is true of the index no need to flip backThis was a fascinating read For me it helped put some of the pieces of the Risorgimento together I recommend it for anyone interested in this time in Italian or church history The Old Myers Place (Halloween, reforms such as a constitutional government after the Portfolio Management Formula: Mathematical Trading Methods for the Futures, Options and Stock Markets repressive I Survived Swiss Boarding Schools rule of Pope Gregory XVI In the first year of his Leftover Dead (Trailer Park Mystery, rule Pius IX tried to please his subjects with incremental changes while holding onto absolute authority he believed was Through the description of the early years of Pope Pius IX’s administration the general Witcheskin reader comes to understand the passions people and events that lead to the unification of Italy David Kertzer makes the complex issues easy for the lay The Witches reader to understandPius IX was an unlikely candidate to emerge as Pope from the 1846 conclave He had a low profile and uncertain views As A Year in the Merde revolutions toppled entrenched powers in Europe the Jack Glass realization settled in throughout the peninsula that foreign powers supported the pope who kept the corrupt clergy in place Along with this came the vision of the Italian people as a nationPius began his administration with hints that he would make much needed Splinter reforms He spoke of Italians previous popes would not utter the word in a patriotic ways that suggested that he opposed foreign Austrian influence He Gilchrist: A Novel relaxed censorship freed political prisoners supported Wired for Culture railroads and allowed Jews to leave their ghetto The people showed him their love and he basked in it Dismayed conservatives got Pius’s ear and the Archangels War (Guild Hunter, resulting contrary actions alienated the once enthralled people Within two years not much goodwill Breed of Innocence (The Breed Chronicles remained and the pope sought Me Write Book refuge outside of RomeKertzer takes the The Princes Mistress reader through the politics of the day’s superpowers vying to provide the pope a new base of operations convince him to act in their interest and worst of all to lay siege to Rome and the peninsula to take back his Cosmological Enigmas reforms by force You learn of the difficult position of Alexis Tocueville’s of Democracy in America fame service as the Foreign Minister under Louis Napoleon You learn of the Pope’s intransigency and bitterness to those whom he believes he has served wellThe book ends with the Pope’s Information Infrastructure for Enterprise Coordination and Integration return to Rome An epilogue summarizes the pope’s later life and the final unification of Italy years henceThe text is enhanced by portraits that are well selected for not only facial expressions but also how they look in the total design of the book While I did not consult the maps much they are very good showing all the places pertinent to the story I did not consult the list of characters since Kertzer writes of them so well that they stay with you; the same is true of the index no need to flip backThis was a fascinating Immortal Jellyfish read For me it helped put some of the pieces of the Risorgimento together I At Hells Gate recommend it for anyone interested in this time in Italian or church history


10 thoughts on “The Pope Who Would Be King

  1. says:

    Netgalley #28Many thanks to David Kertzer Random House and Netgalley for the free copy of this book in exchange for my unbiased reviewI knew nothing about this period in history and I'm Catholic so now I feel guilty which isn't really anything new since I'm Catholic This took place in Italy around the same time as the first World's Fair Indian territory is evacuated the Republican Party is founded and the Dred Scott case is decided It was major upheaval in the country which was really tiny states at that time with the Papal States encompassing Rome through the middle Lots of rebellion lots of dead Pope took off in hiding concerned for his safety because everyone is being killed Basically the people want a republic he wants a papal monarchy The people want a Constitution he wants government by the church I guess because I'm an American I found this absolutely absurd I've never known the Pope as a governmental leader I really couldn't blame the Roman population at all except for all of the violence There was so much death Reading this book was uite the educational experience for me I learned something about my religion as well as something about history


  2. says:

    The Pope who would be King is tremendously entertaining and highly informative for a reader possessing a modest knowledge of the history of Italian Unification The subject is the Roman Republic which was proclaimed on February 9 1849 and suppressed by the French Army on July 2 1849 The goal of the author is to show how the experience turned the papacy into the vehement foe of democracy freedom of speech and freedom of the press until the 1960s If Kertzer had not chosen to link the declaration of Papal Infallibility made 20 years later to the events described in this book I would have given it five starsThe story of the Roman Republic is normally viewed as an event among many in the long history of the struggle for Italian Independence aka the Risorgimento aka Italian Unification Hence it is usually told from the perspective of the winners who fought to unify the Italian Peninsula into a single nation and expel its Austrian occupiers Kertzer's book has the great merit of presenting the story from the point of view of the upper clergy of the Roman Catholic church who wanted to maintain the papal theocracy that directly ruled most the of territory in Italy between the Kingdom of Naples and the Austrian ruled territories in Northern ItalyKertzer provides a superb portrait of Pius IX and the cardinals in his entourage during the time periond in which he conceded a constitution to his Papal states fled Rome and returned after the military defeat of the Roman Republic Kertzer is similarly outstanding in describing the personalities and players involved in the democratic assembly created by Pius IX and which would subseuently turn him into a virtual prisoner before his flight from the eternal city Kertzer's descriptions of Mazzini the leader of the Triumvirate that governed the Roman Republic is particularly goodFrom my point of view the best part of the book was the way in which Kertzer described the manoeuvrings inside the French camp Initially France sent a military force to Rome with three goals 1 bring the Pope back to Rome; 2 ensure the survival of the constitutional government; and 3 reduce the influence of Austria in the Italian peninsula The diplomats attached a great deal of importance to preserving a liberal government in the Pope's former territories The military were sympathetic to the Pope but most of all wanted a fast decisive military action against the Roman Republic which they felt would be the best way to minimize the loss of life After a period of reflection the French President Louis Napoléon Bonaparte later Napoléon III decided that what he wanted above all to pose as the defender of the Catholic faith Liberalism in Rome would have to wait for another day The French army attacked and the thoroughly repressive medieval theocracy regime was reinstalled in Rome and throughout the Papal states with no liberal elements of any sortLouis Napoléon was not pleased by the refusal of Pius IX to make any concessions Lliberalism As a result he intervened ten years later in the Second Italian War of Independence to ensure that all of the Papal states with the exception of the Vatican enclave Rome passed into the hands of the Kingdom of Italy which had a liberal constitution The conclusion that Pius IX drew from this was not that it was better to co operate with Liberalism but to fight it with all his forces He convoked the First Vatican Council of 1869 1870 which declared the Pope to be infallible in uestions of doctrine and which condemned democracy religious freedom freedom of speech freedom of the press and the separation of church and stateVatican I wound up the same year in which the French finally pulled their army out of Rome thus allowing the incorporation of the Holy City into the Kingdom of Italy Many people have noted that the two events were chronologically linked However there is no legitimate reason to link the doctrine of papal infallibility to Italian unification The link between the Roman Catholic Church dislike of Liberalism and the movement for Italian Unification could not be clearly Those fighting for unification did so with the express goal of imposing a liberal constitution on all of Italy and of disposing the Vatican of its possessions The doctrine of papal infallibility had theological roots After struggling with the Reformation for 300 years the Catholic theologians had come to realize by the end of the 19th Century that some of their doctrines were difficult to justify on purely theological grounds Conseuently Papa Infallibility was needed as a last resort in certain instances The Virgin Mary and her constant appearances posed the biggest problem Papal Infallibility has in fact only be used once since it was declared This was in 1950 to define the Assumption of the Virgin Mary It has certainly never been used to attack Liberalism


  3. says:

    This is a well researched well written and unexpectedly gripping account of the reign of Pius IX the last pope to govern central Italy as a secular and absolute monarch The narrative mostly focuses on the first tumultuous years of his papacy from his election in 1846 through his well meaning beginnings amid an antiuated government of reactionary cardinals to the chaos of 1848 That revolutionary year much as the Arab Spring was in our time shook government after government across Europe and it would arrive in Rome in the form of a Roman Republic and a people sick of theocratic rule and Pius IX would dither and then flee to the Kingdom of NaplesIt's an exciting story mainly about the momentous and violent period 1848 49 mostly in Rome and the revolution and siege of the Eternal City The book no spoiler does sketch his subseuent reign and his being chased into the Vatican for good in 1870 by an army of reunified ItalyPius IX to be fair had a weak hand to play with few resources in the Papal States and a weak army with the surrounding powers Kingdom of Naples Austrian Empire the Kingdom of Sardinia and the new post revolutionary French Second Republic themselves feeling compelled to intervene to save or capture the papacy to suit their own interests as much as the Catholic cause Nonetheless Pius IX Pio Nono comes off at times as conflicted feckless even irrelevant; his first move in exile in Gaeta is not to rally an army but to draft an encyclical about the Immaculate ConceptionOther vivid characters come into the story his villainous secretary of state Cardinal Antonelli; the operatic Kings Ferdinand in Naples and Charles Albert of Sardinia; the heroic tragic revolutionaries Mazzini Garibaldi Ugo Bassi and Ciceruacchio We see the leaders of another 1848 vintage republic the French president Louis Napoleon his ambassador de Lesseps and his foreign minister Alexis de Tocueville yes the author of Democracy in America intervene and find themselves at war with the Roman Republic We see a fledgling democracy go down under a war between Sardinia and Austria herself beset by revolution in the north and under bloody siege in Rome itself It's a vast canvas and a compelling story played out over less than two years in the 1848 1850 period It shows a pivotal time that established that if the pope had no divine right to govern a state then neither as the author points out did kings Highest recommendation


  4. says:

    The tumultuous life of Pope Pius IX Here is an opportunity to study the life of Pope Pius IX and take a journey through the history of Roman Catholic Church that paved the way for modern Europe Following the death of Pope Gregory XVI 1831–46 the political climate within Italy was turning its tide against Catholic Church’s autocracy The church was steeped in a factional division between conservatives and liberals The conservatives favored the hardline stances and papal absolutism of the previous pontificate while liberals supported reforms In this book author David Kertzer chronicles the tumultuous life of Pope Pius IX and the fate of Catholic Church in progressive Europe Majority of the inhabitants of Papal states during this time did not like the church’s abuses Majority of them wanted to live free from its clutches Jews found themselves in the confines of poverty abuse and antisemitism in the slums of Rome Life for them was beyond unbearable Worst of all was that they lived in fear that their children may be taken from them forcibly baptized under Roman Laws and they would be raised as a Catholics During earlier years the election of Pope Pius IX created much enthusiasm in Europe But soon it faded as French revolution dominated the continent’s political arena The separation of church and state was becoming increasingly popular Conseuently Pope’s influence on people was decreasing But Pope Pius did not shirk he wanted control within Europe and at the same time he expected Roman Catholics to have freedom in Russia and the Ottoman Empire He also fought against anti Catholic sentiments in Italy and Germany When Pope’s life was threatened and became dangerous; he was guarded in seclusion by French forces But after the French defeat in the Franco Prussian War 1870–1871 the Papal States lost its protector in Emperor Napoleon III and came under control Italian rulers But until this time Pope Pius IX was a Sovereign Ruler of the Papal States and expected to be treated as a King During his reign the Pontiff made full use of his spiritual arsenal and warned that Catholics must not believe in freedom of religion or freedom of speech or freedom press He summoned the world’s bishops and cardinals and addressing the conference he condemned the godless forces that emerged from French revolution He proclaimed that he alone would find spiritual solutions for people Many modern day Christian conservatives blame the hippie culture and X generation for turning away from God Pope Pius IX felt the same way during his leadership But in its absolutism the separation of church and state is less meaningful as religions like Islam is making inroads and introducing its political ideology through teachings of its books and Sharia Laws The state of affairs in the Middle East and other Islamic countries demonstrate how clergy have cleverly taken control of its masses by intimidating their governments


  5. says:

    Through the description of the early years of Pope Pius IX’s administration the general reader comes to understand the passions people and events that lead to the unification of Italy David Kertzer makes the complex issues easy for the lay reader to understandPius IX was an unlikely candidate to emerge as Pope from the 1846 conclave He had a low profile and uncertain views As revolutions toppled entrenched powers in Europe the realization settled in throughout the peninsula that foreign powers supported the pope who kept the corrupt clergy in place Along with this came the vision of the Italian people as a nationPius began his administration with hints that he would make much needed reforms He spoke of Italians previous popes would not utter the word in a patriotic ways that suggested that he opposed foreign Austrian influence He relaxed censorship freed political prisoners supported railroads and allowed Jews to leave their ghetto The people showed him their love and he basked in it Dismayed conservatives got Pius’s ear and the resulting contrary actions alienated the once enthralled people Within two years not much goodwill remained and the pope sought refuge outside of RomeKertzer takes the reader through the politics of the day’s superpowers vying to provide the pope a new base of operations convince him to act in their interest and worst of all to lay siege to Rome and the peninsula to take back his reforms by force You learn of the difficult position of Alexis Tocueville’s of Democracy in America fame service as the Foreign Minister under Louis Napoleon You learn of the Pope’s intransigency and bitterness to those whom he believes he has served wellThe book ends with the Pope’s return to Rome An epilogue summarizes the pope’s later life and the final unification of Italy years henceThe text is enhanced by portraits that are well selected for not only facial expressions but also how they look in the total design of the book While I did not consult the maps much they are very good showing all the places pertinent to the story I did not consult the list of characters since Kertzer writes of them so well that they stay with you; the same is true of the index no need to flip backThis was a fascinating read For me it helped put some of the pieces of the Risorgimento together I recommend it for anyone interested in this time in Italian or church history


  6. says:

    This is a very fine piece of tradional narrative history writing Clearly a huge amount of research has gone into it but Kertzer does the job of sifting it for us and putting it in narrative form If there is any problem it's that you sometimes feel he add touches he couldn't have known people panting or dropping their shoulders as they do this or that But in the main you feel you're getting the facts from the archives And the story is fascinating if sometimes depressing for the sheer muddle and stupidity of it all If anyone believes that Italy was better off before unification this book is a fine corrective It was one humiliation after another for the Italians


  7. says:

    I have a friend who is militantly anti Catholic who once observed how odd he found it that every single Pope since Pius IX has either been canonized or is in the pipeline for it The only exceptions are the Benedicts one of whom isn't dead Benedict XV's lack of promotion is odd since he was arguably both holy and a good steward of the papal throneBut I digress It is certainly true that Popes have been less exciting in the post Pio Nono reigns To say nothing of less political which may be the direct result of the loss of the Papal States Kertzer's well written book focuses upon the beginning of the divestiture of the papal patrimony ie the removal of the Pope to Gaeta in the face of Roman uprisings during the troubles of 1848 An actual republic was declared and Pius IX invited the Catholic powers of Europe France Austria Spain and the Bourbon Kingdom of Naples to suppress it and restore him to his secular authority The republicans were perfectly happy to have the Pope reside in Rome and continue his role as spiritual leader of the Roman Church but Pius wasn't interested His early liberalism after his election in 1846 seems to have been a misguided attempt to curry favor with the citizens of the Papal States rather than any deep seated convictions Once it became apparent that the genie of democracy was out of the bottle the Pope fled the Eternal City The damndest people keep showing up in this story Alexis de Tocueville yes that guy actually winds up being the French Foreign Minister who sends troops against the Roman Republic Rome is bombarded and people die although the French wring their hands a bit over the prospect of damaging the center of Western civilization Pius sits it all out in Gaeta whining non stop about how unfair his people are being to him The net result is to turn a not very bright man into a hardened tyrant no other real word will do when he is restored The Pope has people guillotined In the 1850s Which is not something I knew before Kertzer bends over backwards to be personally kind about Pius' character flaws but a modern pontiff who has people beheaded should be disualified for sainthood Apparently not; he was declared Venerable in 1985 and Blessed in 2000 by St Pope John Paul II During the previous century three other attempts to advance his cause had failedThe book is a good read Kertzer writes in such a way that one can keep track of the characters and clearly understand what the major players considered to be at stake during Pius' early regnal years As for the emergence of Modern Europe subtitle it is less effective That probably had to do with the revolutions that swept the Austrian Empire and the emerging nationalisms in Italy Germany Hungary and the Russian Empire But Pius' rejection of the Modern certainly didn't help the cause of the ancien regimeRecommended


  8. says:

    forgetting the maxim that one must never have for enemies either women or priests


  9. says:

    In the 100 pages of the book that I could force myself to read Pius IX is portrayed as an unimaginative and unskilled leader with no fixed ideas and no ability to move forward with the few ideas he did haveIt would be hard for even a great writer of history to make Pius a compelling protagonist but alas Kertzer is only an OK writer and loses the main character of a not very compelling story lost in mediocrityI don’t understand all these positive reviews


  10. says:

    The title of this book suggests some of the historical significance of Pope Pius IX who occupied the papacy in the middle of the 19th century We think of the pope as occupying the tiny space of the Vatican City in Rome and being cautious about involvement in the political affairs of the world but a century and a half ago the papacy was still a medieval one with huge investments in land and possessions It didn't divest itself of these and become modern without a ferocious fight and Kertzer's book details that battle Initially Pius IX had been a popular figure an unassuming Italian who was elected pope in 1846 by the college of cardinals He was the last of the pope kings a line that had ruled over the papal states a large swath of land that covered central Italy This was a period though of revolutions that swept through Europe and the papacy was caught up this fervor Kertzer makes clear that the pope was a man with good instincts and a deep faith but unable to grasp the significance of the forces that were reshaping Europe Margaret Fuller an American living in Rome had sympathy for the Pope who could not possibly meet all of the expectations of the people They were forces that were initially set in motion by the American Revolution and the French Revolution a half century earlier and demanded greater rights for individual citizens and a diminishment of the absolute power of kings and rulers Italy was a country of abject poverty even though it was full of sumptuous palaces and churches Rome for example a city of less than 200000 had over 400 churches most of them richly decorated It was an oddly Catholic country in which people believed in church doctrines reflected through religious imagery and practices but also one in which these same people resented and even despised priests who served as ruling government functionaries and often owned their own land Revolutionary leaders began to demand papal state reforms from the pope such as release of political prisoners replacement of clerical functionaries by laymen freedom of the press the release of Jews from ghettos and disbanding of papal militias At first Pius was inclined to yield to some of these demands and released a few prisoners but he was surrounded by conservative advisors who reminded him that the laws of the papal reign were given not by men but by God If he began to yield too much power where would it all end? Events moved fast and ended with rioting and the death of one of Pius' advisors who was shot to death as he stood in a palace window The Pope feared for his life and had to sneak out of the Vatican palace and take up residence in Naples From here the story becomes political The pope managed to get the French government to send an army to recapture Rome now a republic controlled by civilians such as Ciceriacchio much praised by Florence Nightingale and helped by Garibaldi The French army succeeded but only after unexpectedly strong resistance Once there though the French insisted that the Pope on his return to Rome make reforms something he kept putting off heavily influenced by his extremely conservative advisor Cardinal Antonelli Interestingly an French politician involved in administering the occupation of the city was Alexis de Tocuville who earlier had visited and written extensively about American society The pope was initially reluctant to return to Rome as he felt it was full of enemies Complicating matters were the Austrian working behind the scenes to control Rome All of this helps explain Piux IX's actions during the 1st Vatican Council convened in 1869 when Pius was now an old man in his late 70's his reign of 31 years is the longest in church history a reactionary council which condemned the rise of liberalism and materialism and is best known for its pronouncement of papal infallibility Pius had personally felt the results disastrous to his idea of religious order of liberal reform movements and this was I'd say his revenge locking the Church into a conservative and defensive mode for 100 years until the convening of the 2nd Vatican Council which would move the Church in a different direction